Rats and Mice
Our well-planned system will work in all situations.
RATS ARE EVERYWHERE!
One female rat can bear more than 1,000 offspring in an eighteen (18) month period.
- 5 to 8 pups are born in each litter
- Weaning period lasts 22 days
- Sexual maturity 70 days later
- Gestation in 21-25 days
When a female rat no longer has a safe place to hide her babies from dominant male rats while searching for her food, she will gnaw her way into your home where other rats infrequently visit to hide her young.
Rats spread disease, damage structures and contaminate food and animal feed, as well as the environment around them. Experts claim, if you see one rat, there are at least 50 more close by. You will rarely see rats unless population pressure drives them from there hiding places.
We remove dead rats, repair and sanitize areas where rats have been destructive. We also provide exclusion after the population has been reduced.
The rodent population outside must be reduced before any changes to the landscaping or structure are done. Rats have teeth that can gnaw through lead pipe. So, no matter how well you exclude them from your home, unless you reduce the population they will come back inside.
Bait stations are placed in areas where our service personnel believe the rats to be most abundant. These bait staions are tamper-resistant and are staked into the ground witjh a vertical anchoring rod. We us the same bait sations you see on the perimeter of hotels, resorts and eating establishments.
The Norway rat is also known as the Brown rat, Gray rat, Common rat, House rat, Wharf rat, Sewer rat, Barn rat and Water rat. They are not actually from Norway, but were first identified there. Norway rats are the most likely type to get into buildings, and are a much bigger problem to eliminate once they do.
Norway rats are often completely black. They can also be grayish-brown, but the color may vary from a pure gray to a blackish- or reddish-brown. The underside is usually gray to yellow-white. The body is heavy and thick, from 7 to 10 inches long. They weight between 12 to 24 ounces. The tail is shorter than the head and body--about 6 to 8 1/2 inches long. The tail is dark on top with a lighter underside.
Norway rats are able to gnaw through wood, lead, aluminum, copper, even cinder block and uncured concrete. They burrow extensively in soil and are excellent swimmers and good climbers. They usually nest in the basements and lower portions of buildings. Norway rats are very nocturnal--most of their activity and feeding takes place between a half-hour after sunset and a half-hour before sunrise. They also have a very strong social hierarchy - the biggest and strongest Norway rats get the best food and harborage. They are omnivores--they can eat just about anything, but they prefer meats, fish, flour, cereal grains, fruits and vegetables. Norway rats will eat almost any human food and waste--garbage and even grease can provide excellent diets. Rats visit fewer food sites than mice, but eat more at each site. They consume 3/4 to 1 ounce of food each day and require water daily to survive, from 1/2 to 1 ounce of water every day. Norway rats are best suited for temperate zones.
Due to their excellent adaptability, they are found everywhere in the United States, first arriving here on ships in the 1770’s. They are mostly found in the old established downtown and dock areas, and have become quite prolific in that environment, so they are not as much a problem for the homeowner.
Norway rats will become sexually mature in 3-5 months of age. The females create a nest in secluded places when inside a building, or in burrows or tunnels when outside. There can be from four to seven litters each year, with up to a dozen young in each litter, so the popula-tion can grow quite rapidly. Adults only live from 9-12 months.
Roof Rats, also known as Tree Rats are probably the most common rat species found in Southern Ca;ifornia. They are also known as Alexandrian rats, Black rats, Fruit rats and Ship rats. They will explore their usual territory daily, covering about 100 to 300 feet. Rats will frequent the same areas and travel the same runways daily. Because they are nocturnal by habit, most of their activity is at night. The body is slender, from 6 1/2 to 8 inches long. They have an aver-age weight of 6 to 12 ounces. Their color varies from black to brownish-gray, with the under-side being gray to white. The tail is hairless and longer than the head and body, from 7 1/2 to 10 inches long.
Roof rats will not only nest in trees (especially palms), ivy, and ground cover, but also in upper portions of buildings. They are omnivores--their food source consists of snails, fruits, grains, vegetables, nuts and seeds, pet food and items from unsealed garbage containers, and just about anything leftover from humans. Rats visit fewer food sites than mice, but will eat more at each site. They usually consume 1/2 to 1 ounce of food daily, and drink up to 1 ounce of water daily. A water source is also essential. The Roof rat is distinguished by its larger ears, pointed nose, a tail that is longer than the body, and an average body weight of 6-12 ounces. Roof rats also have an acute sense of smell. Best suited for tropical and semitropical zones, Roof rats are found along the Pacific Coast, in Hawaii, along the lower half of the East Coast, throughout the Gulf States and major river systems (i.e., Mississippi River).
Rats spread disease, damage structures, and contaminate food, animal feed, and the environ-ment around them. Because a single pair of rats shed more than one million body hairs each year, and a single rat will produce 25,000 droppings per year, contamination is a serious prob-lem. Additionally, the physical damage to structures which can include electrical, plumbing, and woodwork problems can be extensive and costly.
The female Roof rat reaches sexual maturity at 3 months of age. They are in heat approximately every 4-5 days. The gestation period is 21 to 23 days, with each litter being 5-8 pups. After giving birth the female is capable of being in heat again in 24 to 48 hours, so many generations can be produced each year.
Mice are looking for a warm, safe environment with access to food and water and generally don’t travel more then 10 feet from their nest. Good sanitation and proper food containers will aide in the reduction of mouse infestation.
Advise your technician of all mouse activity to ensure a successful treatment.
Upon arrival, your Technician will customize a treatment plan and will:
- Inspect to locate the rodent access points and determine activity level.
- Install Interior Rodent Control Device(s) to eliminate the mice.
- Will advise you if rodent exclusion is necessary and what areas need to be sealed.
We currently perform successful rodent extermination and control treatments on more than 5,000 properties per month in San Diego. This process can be too complicated for most homeowners and by the time supplies are purchased, savings are minimal.
The House mouse is a small, slender rodent with a slightly pointed nose; small, black, some-what protruding eyes; large, sparsely haired ears; and a nearly hairless tail with scale rings. House mice are considered among the most troublesome and economically damaging rodents in the United States. Adult House mice weigh from 1/2 to 1 ounce. They are generally grayish brown with a gray or buff belly. House mice live in and around homes, farms, commercial establishments, and in open fields and agricultural lands. House mice will eat many types of food but prefer seeds and grain. Foods high in fat, protein, or sugar may be preferred even when grain and seed are pres-ent. Such items include bacon, chocolate candies, butter, and nutmeats. Unlike Norway and Roof rats, House mice can survive with little or no water, obtaining their water from moisture in the food they eat.
House mice are mainly nocturnal, although in some areas a lot of daytime activity may be seen. Seeing mice during the day does not necessarily mean that a high population is present, al-though this is usually true for rats. They may nest in the ground or in any protected location. Nests are constructed of shredded fibrous materials such as paper, burlap, or other similar items, and generally have the appearance of a “ball” of material loosely woven together. Nests are usually 4 to 6 inches in diameter.
During its daily activities, a mouse normally travels an area averaging between 10 to 30 feet in diameter. Mice will seldom travel farther than this to obtain food or water. Because of their lim-ited movement and feeding behavior they are much more difficult to control in some situations.
House mice can also cause damage to buildings by their gnawing and nest-building activities, in addition to their contamination of foods. Mice often make homes in large electrical appliances, and they may chew up wiring as well as insulation, resulting in short circuits, which can create fire hazards or expensive damage. Mice may also damage stored items in attics, basements, garages, or museums.
Among the diseases mice or their parasites may transmit to humans are salmonellosis (food poisoning), rickett-sialpox, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Mice may also carry leptospiro-sis, ratbite fever, tapeworms, and organisms that can cause ringworm (a fungal skin disease) in humans.
Litters of 5 or 6 young are born 19 to 21 days after mating. Mice are born hairless and with their eyes closed. They grow rapidly, and after 2 weeks their eyes and ears open and they are covered with hair. They begin to make short excursions from the nest and eat solid food at 3 weeks. Weaning soon follows, and mice are sexually mature at 6 to 10 weeks of age. Mice may breed year-round and the female has 5 to 10 litters per year. Mouse populations can therefore grow very rapidly under ideal conditions.
Deer Mice can be a pest in that they will commonly invade homes, frequently setting up nests in attics. Nests are also created in burrows in the ground, and in trees or stumps. They are slightly larger than the common House mouse, the body being about 3-4 inches long. They are nocturnal, and feed on seeds and fruits in the wild, but will eat whatever is available inside a house. Deer mice will store food near the nest. They can even destroy furniture, cardboard, and paper products to obtain nesting materi-als. They also commonly spread hantavirus, which can be a problem for man. Hantavirus is spread by dust, and working around a Deer Mouse infestation requires a special respirator.
Deer mice have 3-6 young in each litter, and can have 3-4 litters each year. The greatest population surge is in the spring. They live about two years in the wild.